Friday, March 20, 2020

Definition and Examples of Cause and Effect in Essays

Definition and Examples of Cause and Effect in Essays Definition In composition, cause and effect is a method of paragraph or essay development in which a writer analyzes the reasons for- and/or the consequences of- an action, event, or decision. A cause-and-effect paragraph or essay can be organized in various ways. For instance, causes and/or effects  can be arranged in either chronological order or reverse chronological order. Alternatively, points can be presented in terms of emphasis, from least important to most important, or vice versa. See Examples and Observations below. Also see: 50 Essay Topics: Cause EffectAffect and EffectArgumentationGamblers FallacyPost Hoc FallacySentence Combining Exercise #7: Out of the Ice Age Sentence Combining Exercise #8: How Teachers Make Children Hate Reading Examples of Cause Effect Paragraphs and Essays Cause and Effect in The Dream Animal by Loren EiseleyCause and Effect in Stephen Kings Horror MoviesChanges by Peter MatthiessenCorn-Pone Opinions by Mark TwainThe Decay of Friendship by Samuel JohnsonThe Hurricane by John James Audubon Learning to Hate Mathematics: A Cause Effect Essay Examples and Observations If you prove the cause, you at once prove the effect; and conversely nothing can exist without its cause.(Aristotle, Rhetoric) Immediate Causes and Ultimate CausesDetermining causes and effects is usually thought-provoking and quite complex. One reason for this is that there are two types of causes: immediate causes, which are readily apparent because they are closest to the effect, and ultimate causes, which, being somewhat removed, are not so apparent and may perhaps even be hidden. Furthermore, ultimate causes may bring about effects which themselves become immediate causes, thus creating a causal chain. For example, consider the following causal chain: Sally, a computer salesperson, prepared extensively for a meeting with a client (ultimate cause), impressed the client (immediate cause), and made a very large sale (effect). The chain did not stop there: the large sale caused her to be promoted by her employer (effect).(Alfred Rosa and Paul Eschholz, Models for Writers, 6th ed. St . Martins Press, 1998) Composing a Cause/Effect EssayFor all its conceptual complexity, a cause/effect essay can be organized quite simply. The introduction generally presents the subject(s) and states the purpose of the analysis in a clear thesis. The body of the paper then explores all relevant causes and/or effects, typically progressing from least to most influential or from most to least influential. Finally, the concluding section summarizes the various cause/effect relationships established in the body of the paper and clearly states the conclusions that can be drawn from those relationships.(Kim Flachmann, Michael Flachmann, Kathryn Benander, and Cheryl Smith, The Brief Prose Reader. Prentice Hall, 2003) Causes of Child ObesityMany of todays kids are engaged in sedentary pursuits made possible by a level of technology unthinkable as recently as 25 to 30 years ago. Computer, video, and other virtual games, the ready availability of feature films and games on DVD, plus high-tech advancements in musi c-listening technology have come down into the range of affordability for parents and even for the kids themselves. These passive pursuits have produced a downside of reduced physical activity for the kids, often with the explicit or implicit consent of the parents. . . .Other fairly recent developments have also contributed to the alarming rise in child obesity rates. Fast food outlets offering consumables that are both low in price and low in nutritional content have exploded all over the American landscape since the 1960s, especially in suburban areas close to major highway interchanges. Kids on their lunch breaks or after school often congregate in these fast food outlets, consuming food and soft drinks that are high in sugar, carbohydrates, and fat. Many parents, themselves, frequently take their children to these fast food places, thus setting an example the kids can find justification to emulate.(MacKie Shilstone, Mackie Shilstones Body Plan for Kids. Basic Health Publication s, 2009) Cause and Effect in Jonathan Swifts A Modest ProposalA Modest Proposal is a brilliant example of the use of non-argumentative devices of rhetorical persuasion. The whole essay, of course, rests broadly upon the argument of cause and effect: these causes have produced this situation in Ireland, and this proposal will result in these effects in Ireland. But Swift, within the general framework of this argument, does not employ specific argumentative forms in this essay. The projector chooses rather to assert his reasons and then to amass them by way of proof.(Charles A. Beaumont, Swifts Classical Rhetoric. Univ. of Georgia Press, 1961) Effects of AutomobilesI worry about the private automobile. It is a dirty, noisy, wasteful, and lonely means of travel. It pollutes the air, ruins the safety and sociability of the street, and exercises upon the individual a discipline which takes away far more freedom than it gives him. It causes an enormous amount of land to be unnecessarily abstracted from nature and from plant life and to become devoid of any natural function. It explodes cities, grievously impairs the whole institution of neighborliness, fragmentizes and destroys communities. It has already spelled the end of our cities as real cultural and social communities, and has made impossible the construction of any others in their place. Together with the airplane, it has crowded out other, more civilized and more convenient means of transport, leaving older people, infirm people, poor people and children in a worse situation than they were a hundred years ago.(George F. Kennan, Democracy and the Student Left, 1968) Examples and Effects of EntropyBecause of its unnerving irreversibility, entropy has been called the arrow of time. We all understand this instinctively. Childrens rooms, left on their own, tend to get messy, not neat. Wood rots, metal rusts, people wrinkle and flowers wither. Even mountains wear down; even the nuclei of atoms decay. In the city we see entropy in the rundown subways and worn-out sidewalks and torn-down buildings, in the increasing disorder of our lives. We know, without asking, what is old. If we were suddenly to see the paint jump back on an old building, we would know that something was wrong. If we saw an egg unscramble itself and jump back into its shell, we would laugh in the same way we laugh as a movie run backward.(K.C. Cole, The Arrow of Time. The New York Times, March 18, 1982)

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

How TNT Pop Its Snappers Work

How TNT Pop Its Snappers Work TNT Pop Its belong to a class of novelty fireworks collectively called bang snaps. Similar products are called snap-its, poppers, and party snaps. Kids have been using them for pranks and celebrations since the 1950s. In case you were wondering, Pop Its dont contain TNT. That is simply their brand name. Pop Its are trick noisemaker rocks, commonly seen around the 4th of July and Chinese New Year, that pop when they are stepped on or thrown against a hard surface. They look like little paper-wrapped rocks, which, in fact, is what they are. The rock is gravel or sand that has been soaked in silver fulminate. The coated grains are twisted into a piece of cigarette paper or tissue paper. When the bang snap is thrown or stepped on, the friction or pressure detonates the silver fulminate. Pop its can also be ignited, although its not particularly safe to set them off in your hand. The tiny explosion makes a sharp snap that sounds a bit like that of a cap gun. Chemistry of Pop Its Silver fulminate (like mercury fulminate, which would be toxic) is explosive. However, the quantity of fulminate in Pop Its is very small (about 0.08 milligrams) so the little exploding rocks are safe. The sand or gravel moderates the shock wave produced by the detonation, so even though the sound is loud, the force of the pressure wave is fairly minor. Snapping one in your hand or stomping it with bare feet can hurt, but is unlikely to break the skin. The sand or gravel isnt propelled very far, so there isnt danger of the particles acting as projectiles. Generally, Pop Its and related products are considered safe for use by children. While poisonous fulminates of other metals would produce a similar effect, they arent used in commercial products. Make Pop Its Yourself Fulminates are easily prepared by reacting metal with concentrated nitric acid. You dont want to go making this in any quantity yourself because the fulminate is shock sensitive and pressure sensitive. However, if you decide to make do-it-yourself Pop Its, the silver fulminate is more stable if flour or starch is added to the crystals during the filtering process. You can coat sand with silver fulminate, wrap it in paper, and use it in the traditional way. Bigger is not better - be safe.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Treatment of disorders Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Treatment of disorders - Essay Example The obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has numerous psychopharmacological and psychological treatments, this include medications, such as antidepressants which have direct effect on the patients mind and this can also have few side effects, which however are bearable. The cognitive behavioral theory has proved to be the most useful source of treating such disorders, this include actions like identifying the main factors causing disorder and than trying to separate them from the patients thinking using various techniques, "support groups" is another technique used to eliminate the disorder, here the patient shares his/her experiences with the other of the same category or with people who have already experienced OCD, this brings in a lot of knowledge about the undergoing conditions in the patient's mind. The autistic disorders that are found right from the childhood, people having such disorders have relatively less chances of being cured from the disorders. The treatment include special educational program, designed to improve the patient's speaking, interacting and reacting skills, else social skills training and individual therapies are also encouraged. One interesting fact about autistic disorders is that it requires treatment on the basis patient's age, the symptoms, the extent of disorder, patient's tolerance for the medications etc. The intensive behavior therapy in the early age of patient or child and actions of parents are in great relation to better improvement in the conditions of the patient or child. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Generally found in children, ADHD has certain steps that are necessary for ensuring the treatment's success, it consist of an overall analysis on child's strengths and weaknesses, behavior therapy is again very much encouraged to treat children with ADHD, a health guide from Webmd says the following: Your child's health professional may recommend that your child take a stimulant medication, such as amphetamine (examples include Dexedrine or Adderall) or methylphenidate (examples include Ritalin, Concerta, or Metadate CD). These medications improve symptoms in about 70% of children who have the condition. However parents are a lot more concerned about their children, and it often makes them worried about the loss of appetite of their children, sleeping problems in children and related issues, research has shown that nothing such teribles happens if the medication is properly taken. post traumatic stress post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is having a common background, it appears in chidren due to sudden shocks, it can be treated but it has no different treatments than most of the other disorders, it includes psychodynamic psychotherapy in which more concern is on the past accidents and how they are linked with present experiences, Exposure theapy is another treatment which is related to the reactions of the pateint and his/her

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Mark & Spencer Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words - 1

Mark & Spencer - Essay Example The analysis has been carried out using Key performance indicators (KPI), which are essential in determining the nature of performance being shown by the company, has been outlined in the appendices. The balance scorecard and the strategy map formulated can serve as an effective guiding tool for the company, which when followed in a proper way, can be utilized to predict its effective future plan. This study contains suitable recommendations based on the key parameters used for the purpose of analysis which can serve as a benchmark for the company to evaluate its performance thereby comparing them to the performance of other peer organizations. The recommendations made can contribute significantly towards the identification of the company’s strength and weaknesses in the HR division and help it to bring about improvements in its financial and non-financial performances. In the end, critical discussion and evaluation has been done suggesting the usage of balanced scorecard anal ysis and strategy map. Table of Contents 1. Introduction 4 2. Vision and Strategy 4 3. Balanced Scorecard for Marks and Spencer PLC (Human Resource Division) 5 3.1. Financial Perspective 5 3.2. Customer perspective 6 3.3. Business Operations perspective 6 3.4. ... Having a worldwide presence, M&S offers varied line of products to its customers ranging from clothing; home ware and food retail (Reuters, 2013). The report will conduct a thorough analysis of the human resource division of M&S thereby identifying its vision and strategy. In addition to that, a balance scorecard and strategy map will be formulated from the Human Resource Division perspective depicting the alignment between the strategies adopted and their significance towards the company’s goals and targets. 2. Vision and Strategy The HR team of M&S deals with ‘people’ side of the organization which adheres to find the right mix of talented people to join them and then ensuring their happiness & growth alongside the growth of the company (Marks and Spencer, 2013). Their vision is to employ a rigid and disciplined workforce where the leadership team along with the workforce will ensure that all their tasks are directed towards the achievement of the strategic obje ctives (Marks and Spencer, 2013). Their focus lies in making the workforce understand their strategy, embrace it and motivate them towards supporting strategy execution. In addition, they also want to ensure the integration of a competent workforce (especially people holding the key positions) and imparting them the necessary knowledge and skills through various training programs whereby, the workforce can be of significant contribution towards achieving sustainable success (Huselid, 2005b). The strategies of M&S’s human resource division can be best explained by the HR architecture that they follow. Employing the right mix of qualified HR personnel whose competencies can be aligned to the needs of the business (Marks and Spencer, 2013).

Saturday, January 25, 2020

The main functions of an operating system

The main functions of an operating system The Main Functions Of An Operating System Here I am going to explain the main functions of an operating system Processor management The operating system must assign enough cycles to each process to get the job done and must give each process enough time with the CPU to function properly. (CANT MAKE IT NOT SOUND LIKE THE FUCKING SITE! STUPID EFFICIENT SITE)On a single tasking system it only needs to pause to deal with user input and certain interrupts. On a multitasking system the system must priorities each process switching between them thousands of time per second in order for it to give the appearance that things are happening at once. On multi-core and multi-processing systems, processes on each core may be running at the same time as the other core but each processor core can only hanlde one task at a time. Memory management and storage. The operating system must also ensure that memory doesnt clash with other memory and that each process is given enough memory to execute. For this to happen the operating system must assign memory boubndaries for types of software and individual applications.   Applications are loaded into memory in block of a certain size assigned by the operating system. Every process will be given a multiple of that number in size so that memory will not overlap if there it is micalculated bit. Tthe operating system must make sure that all the different type of memory are used in an efficient way. This includes ROM, RAM, cache memory, virtual memory and hardisk space. For instance when RAM is full some of the processes not being used can be saved onto the hardisks and recalled when it is needed. It can keep procceses that are used frequently into high speed cache memory so that it can be retrieved quicker rather than being read from RAM evertime. Device management This is the management of all the input and output devices such as keyboards and printers. For instance if there is to much data coming in from the keyboard for the cpu to handle the operating system can instruct a buffer to keep taking information but to stop sending it to the cpu. DO I NEED TO EXPLAIN WHAT DRIVERS ARE? User interface There are many difference type of user interface but all do the same task which is to be the translator between machine code and the user. It allows for the user to communicate with the machine and for the machine to output the effects of the users actions. Main types of Operating System A comparison of the four main types of operating system. The Personal computer, Network Computer, Mainframe and Mobile Phone/PDA. Main Differences A mainframe is designed to input process, move around and ouput large amounts of date fast and efficeintly. It is the most reliable, stable, and secure of all. Looks wise quite large (get better description) A PDA is designed to be small. They use simpler instructions which take up less memory are   therefore more limited to the sort of thing they can do and run. Network is like a PC but It uses less storage, less memory and does less processing.   It is a little like a computer which mostly deals with input and output the rest is done elsewhere on a server. A PC is gerneral purpose meaning can do a wide range of different tasks. User interface Mainframes didnt used to have user interfaces only accepting input via punch cards and tapes etc. Now they support GUI like the others. All use GUi but recent phones/PDAs come with touchscreen which is an interactive from of GUI ehich accepts input. Users can access a mainframe either by a computer terminal but theser days most can go online via a personal computer and acces the mainframe via a personal computer. device management The mainframe use many subsidury computers to hanlde I/O devices. unlike the other 3 who devices connect directly to the main unit. You can connect a wide range of devices to a PC or network computer such as printers and scanners unlike the PDA where you are limited to headphones usb and sometime a keyboard. You cannot add more and detract from like you can with a PC which uses special drivers to be able to communicate with the operating system. Memory Storage Management A Mainframe can have multiple hardrives therefore store extremly high volumes of data unlike a pc which usually only has one. PDAs on the other hand do not have a hardisk but use rom to store the operating system and pre-installed programs such as the claender and phonebook. If you add programs these are stored in RAM. You do not loose this data when the phone is turned of because the phone is run on batteries which still have a small bit of power left in them when the phone is turned off. Network computers also often dont have a hardisk using the network to store and access data and run programs. Processor Management pcs pdas and network computers are all single user operating systems unlike mainframes which use multi user operating systems. Unlike PDAs and network computers mainframes can run multiple operating systems. modern pcs can also do this in the way of a virtual machine but not to the extent and sophistication of a mainframe. Unlike the other three mainframes use multiple processors and can share their workload between them. Whereas network computers are able to use the the server for some of their processing. change sophistication so it isnt copying Unlike the others mainframes use single tasking operating systems Well Known Operating Systems A Comparison between MS Windows, MS-Dos, Linux and Mac-OS. MS-DOS Introduction to MS-DOS MS DOS Stands for Microsoft Disk Operating System. IBM released the first ever personal computer in 1982 which came with MS-DOS. MS-DOS is a re-named version of Q-DOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System) which was owned by Seattle computer Products at the time. Soon after the release of MS-DOS Microsoft bought the licensing rights from Seattle computers. MS-DOS was then Liscenced by around 50 companies in 1982 and was used on most personal computers throughout the 1980s.Like windows and Mac, MS-DOS was closed source. Closed source means that you are unable to see the source therefore unable to change or make any additions to the operating system via the source code. Therefore the only person who would be able to provide updates or newer versions would have been Microsoft themselves. Architecture It uses a command line interface rather than the modern Graphical User Interface (GUI) that we see on personal computers now. This means that they were not yet â€Å"user friendly.† For this reason MS-DOS would have been used by skilled workers rather than the general public for personal use. MS-DOS was a Single Tasking operating system and with the lack of GUI was suited and used for jobs such asfile management, simple networking and batch processing. Single tasking also means that it would run more efficiently i.e. quicker for certain tasks MS-DOS memory management would have differed to that of more recent computers as there would have been no high speed cache memory or virtual memory and there would have been no need for this on a single tasking system. Because MS-DOS is this basic it does not take up as much storage space and doesnt use as much RAM to run. Where MS-DOS is now MS-DOS was gradually replaced by MS Windows with the invention of GUI and windowsAPI (Application Programming Iinterface.) It was eventually discontinued in 2000. ; MS-DOS is now used as a standalone product but is now used for bootstrapping and troubleshooting. MS Windows Introduction to MS-WINDOWS Microsoft windows was developed by Microsoft following on from MS-DOS. The first version of MS-Windows realeased in 1985 was not a complete operating system. It was an extension of MS-DOS which provided a graphical user interface. MS-Windows is universal meaing it runs on most computer platforms such as personal computers, workstations, mobile phones/pdas, tablet pcs, laptops, media centers, and embedded systems. MS Windows is the most used of current operating systems and can be found in schools, offices and homes across the country. Windows version 2.1 was the first to be given the ability to do such thing as multi tasking. The amount and efficiency of which has been improving ever since. Later Versions of windows no longer had MS-DOS underlying and became a modern operating system rather than being considered just the GUI. Liscencing and cost Unlike Linux, Microsoft usually comes pre-installed and is a fully licensed product. This can be a good thing as you have full technical support when things go wrong but are however restricted to one machine per licence. Windows can cost alot less than mac to purchase however some people argue that cost of maintenance for a windows operating systems makes up for this. Windows is said to be less stable due its software components being connected. Security As windows is the most used operating system taking up (90 somehing) percent of the market it is more susceptible to hacking and is therefore less secure than mac and linux. It also means there there is a greater range of 3rd   party software   for windows. Architecture Like MS-DOS, Windows is closed source so there is less flexibility in what you can change therefore the GUI is less configurable than linux. However for the same reason it is alot more user friendly. Windows is backwards compatible meaning that softeware made for older versions of windows can also run on newer versions. Windows like most modern operating systems is multi tasking and multi processing meaning it can give the appearance of doing many things at once. This can have its disadvantages in such areas as speed. Even though windows no longer has MS-DOS underlying you are able to bring up the DOS-prompt which has a limited capability unlike Linux where you can run the whole thing in the commandline layer. With all the advancesof windows can now take up to1gb of space as apposed to the low storage that MS-DOS would have taken up. LINUX Introduction to Linux In 1984 Richard Stallman made a free version of unix which he called GNU. Shortly after he wrote the GNU GPL (general public liscence) . His aim was to make software that was freely available to general public.   In 1994 Linus Torvalds released Linux kernel which could be integrated with the GNU system to create a completely free operating system. The name linux is linuss name combined with Minix which is a simplified version of unix he had based his kernel on. Excerpt from Unix System Security Tools by Seth T. Ross do i use the excert bit or the internet site? Licenscing and Cost The main difference between Linux the other 3 operating systems is that it is open source and is licenced under the GNU GPL which means it is free and that any one can view it edit it and redistribute it as long as it complies with the GNU GPL Licence. As Linux is not a corporate product and is in many different states/versions it does not have the support that you would get with mac and windows and also doesnt often come pre-installed. It does however have many forums and tech based help on the internet. Architecture The advantages of its open source code is that it is free and also if you are very knowledgeable of programming you can control almost everything about the operating system making it a great choice if you want to manipulate it for specific tasks. Unfortunately this detracts from the user friendliness . This problem has been tackled by a failry new version called abuntu meaning () although not quite the userfreindliness that mac and windows demonstrate. This being said Linuxs main user group would be people of a very computer knowleagable background mosrt commonly nicknamed â€Å"compuer nerds†. Like Windows linux can be run on a wide range of systems including persoonal computers, desktops, mobile phones/pdassupercomputers, laptops and is welll know fo its use on servers.   Security Secuity wise Linux is considered to be the more secure than windows as it is based on Unix (an operating system considered to be very secure) but as stated by John Lettice at â€Å"theres also a reasonable amount of support for the view that Linux would get just as many security issues if it had anything like Windows user base.† MacOS Introduction Mac OS was created by Apple. Mac OS was designed for apple macintosh computers and only runs on Apple hardware. Mac OS does not have a command line interface at all and unlike windows deleting a file will not break the entire system. (ASK BEN IS THIS TRUE?) For this and other reasons it is much more user friendly but anyone wanting to explore or troubleshoot will not be able to. All you see is the GUI so it is therefor the least flexible in its ablity for customization and control over how it works. This is   â€Å"† Like windows mac is closed source and   has full technical support Cost Originally I thought that mac was the more expensive of the four but according to Jon Henshaw, M.A. at â€Å"Windows and Mac computers are now almost equal in cost. Whereas you can buy a Windows based PC for less than $500, you will not get the multimedia hardware and software that you will want and need. In fact, to do so would cost equal or more to the cost of a Mac.† You also have to consider that there will be less maintenance costs than that of windows.UI Security Mac is considered more secure than windows which is partly down to it being based on unix but is also as i said previously because windows is more widely used. It is also considered to be more stable which again couldbe down to it being based on unix. According to Jon Henshaw, M.A. at mac doesnt marry its software components together like windows does so when something goes wrong it doesnt all follow suit meaning the whole thing is less likely to crash like windows can often do.45 Type of use/Who uses it? Mac OS is not as widely used as windows and therefore has a smaller amount of software that will run on it. According to>Manali Oak at   â€Å"While Windows focuses on office function, Macintosh is focused on graphics and multimedia functions.† (> This would imply that people who use macs are genraly people who have jobs where they have to use alot of multimedia. Conclusion If I was going to recommend an OS for someone who is new to computers and didnt want to know anything about whats going on in the background I would suggest the Mac because of its userfreindly design and also if they mainly iused computers for photos music and videos. I would suggest windows tto someone who wants a large amount of software options and games and who likes to have some ability probe further than (cant finnish the fucking sentence) For those who enjoy or need a completely customisable operating system. If they were not already knowledgeable in programming/command line they would also have to be willing to take on the learning curve. Overal I feel the Mac will be the operating system of the future assuming that there is a larger software base and that it becomes more affordable. 100 ALSO WRITE ABOUT WINDOWS AND LINUX BEIGN THE CHEAPER OPTION IF MAC IS TO EXPENSIVE? 1.1 References (MAKE SURE IF U HAVE TO ADD ALL THE PAGES   U DO) > 1.2 Glossary 1.2.1 Proprietary

Friday, January 17, 2020

Issue of Kashmir and Role of Pakistan

The Quaid was not given to making rhetorical pronouncements. He was a realist; not an idealist. As a pragmatist and a jurist, he chose his words with care before uttering them; and he was a man of his word. The jugular vein and the body are mutually inter-dependant. Pakistan’s life-blood – water – passes through Kashmir. Kashmir’s life force – its commerce, its people’s very livelihood, its cultural heritage – all lay through its contacts with what is now Pakistan. Both Kashmir and Pakistan have suffered all these years because of artificial man-made barriers between the two. Regrettably, the Quaid-e-Azam did not live long enough to influence the events that followed. The question that presents itself begging for an answer is: if he had lived for a few more years would he have allowed this issue to linger on for so long? We may do well to give this aspect some thought. Regrettably, the leadership that followed the Quaid singularly failed to live up to his ideals. Several issues – the Kashmir issue among them – that should have been tackled betimes and were not are a testimony to this. This is neither the time nor the occasion to go into the history of this issue. Suffice it to state that after the Quaid, successive leadership appear to have missed the bus. The struggle of the people of the State predates the partition of what was then British India. Even before the British left, the people of the State had already asserted, through a valiant struggle, their inalienable right to decide their own future. When the matter landed in the Security Council of the United Nations, the World Body went on to put its stamp of approval on this fundamental right of the people of the Jammu and Kashmir. The right of self-determination of the people of the State of Jammu and Kashmir was guaranteed by the United Nations. As a result of the resolutions of the world body, four parties to the dispute were explicitly recognized: 1) The government of India; 2) The government of Pakistan; 3) The people of the State; and, by implication, 4) The international community, through the United Nations. Any movement towards a final settlement of the issue should, therefore, need to be endorsed by all the four parties. No one party has the right to unilaterally impose a settlement nor, in deed, to move the goal posts. This remains the internationally recognized position. In 1947, British rule in India ended with the creation of two new nations: the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan, while British suzerainty over the 562 Indian princely statesended. According to the Indian Independence Act 1947, â€Å"the suzerainty of His Majesty over the Indian States lapses, and with it, all treaties and agreements in force at the date of the passing of this Act between His Majesty and the rulers of Indian States†,so the states were left to choose whether to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of the princely states, had a predominantly Muslim population, while having a Hindu ruler (Maharaja Hari Singh. ) On partition Pakistan expected Kashmir to be annexed to it. In October 1947, Muslim revolutionaries in western Kashmir and Pakistani tribals from Dir entered Kashmir, intending to liberate it from Dogra rule. Unable to withstand the invasion, the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession that was accepted by the government of India on 27 October 1947. The resulting war over Kashmir, the First Kashmir War, lasted until 1948, when India moved the issue to the UN Security Council. Sheikh Abdullah was not in favour of India seeking UN intervention because he was sure the Indian Army could free the entire State of invaders. The UN had previously passed resolutions for setting up monitoring of the conflict in Kashmir. Following the set-up of the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNCIP), the UN Security Council passed Resolution 47 on 21 April 1948. The resolution imposed an immediate cease-fire and called on Pakistan to withdraw all military presence. The resolution stated that Pakistan would have no say in Jammu and Kashmir politics. India would retain a minimum military presence and â€Å"the final disposition of the State of Jammu and Kashmir will be made in accordance with the will of the people expressed through the democratic method of a free and impartial plebiscite conducted under the auspices of the United Nations. † The ceasefire was enacted on 31 December 1948. The Indian and Pakistani governments agreed to hold the plebiscite, but Pakistan did not withdraw its troops from Kashmir, thus violating the conditions for holding the plebiscite Over the next several years, the UN Security Council passed four new resolutions, revising the terms of Resolution 47 to include a synchronous withdrawal of both Indian and Pakistani troops from the region, To this end, UN arbitrators put forward 11 different proposals for the demilitarization of the region. All of these were accepted by Pakistan, but rejected by the Indian government. Resolutions passed under the UN charter are considered non-binding and have no mandatory enforceability, as opposed to the resolutions passed under Chapter VII. In 1965 and 1971, heavy fighting broke out again between India and Pakistan. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 resulted in the defeat of Pakistan and the Pakistani military's surrender in East Pakistan. The Simla Agreement was signed in 1972 between India and Pakistan. By this treaty, both countries agreed to settle all issues by peaceful means using mutual discussion in the framework of the UN Charter. In 1989, a widespread popular and armed insurgency started in Kashmir. After the 1987 State legislative assembly election, some of the results were disputed. This resulted in the formation militant wings after the election and was the beginning of the Mujahadeen insurgency, which continues to this day. India contends that the insurgency was largely started by Afghan mujahadeen who entered the Kashmir valley following the end of the Soviet-Afghan War. Pakistani and Kashmiri nationalists argue that Afghan mujahideen did not leave Afghanistan in large numbers until 1992, three years after the insurgency began. Yasin Malik, a leader of one faction of the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front, was one of the Kashmiris to organize militancy in Kashmir, Since 1995, Malik has renounced the use of violence and calls for strictly peaceful methods to resolve the dispute. He developed differences with one of the senior leaders, for shunning the demand for an independent Kashmir and trying to cut a deal with the Indian Prime Minister. Pakistan claims these insurgents are Jammu and Kashmir citizens, and are rising up against the Indian army in an independence movement. Pakistan accuses the Indian army of committing serious human rights violations in Kashmir. Pakistan denies that it has or currently is supplying weapons and ammunition to the insurgents. India claims these insurgents are Islamic terrorist groups from Pakistan-administered Kashmir and Afghanistan, fighting to make Jammu and Kashmir part of Pakistan. They claim Pakistan is supplying munitions to the terrorists and training them in Pakistan. India states that the terrorists have been killing many citizens in Kashmir and committing human rights violations. They deny that their own armed forces are responsible for human rights abuses. On a visit to Pakistan in 2006 current Chief Minister of Kashmir Omar Abdullah remarked that foreign militants were engaged in reckless killings and mayhem in the name of religion. Indian government has said militancy is now on the decline. The Pakistani government calls these insurgents â€Å"Kashmiri freedom fighters†, and claims that it gives only moral and diplomatic support to these insurgents, though Indiabelieves they are Pakistan-supported terrorists from Pakistan Administered Kashmir. In October 2008, President Asif Ali Zardari of Pakistan called the Kashmir separatists terrorists in an interview . these comments by Zardari sparked outrage amongs many Kashmiris, some of whom defied a curfew by the Indian army to burn him in effigy. There has been a â€Å"purely indigenous, purely Kashmiri†peaceful protest movement alongside the insurgency in Indian-administered Kashmir since 1989. The movement was created for the same reason as the insurgency; it began with the disputed rigged elections of 1987. The Kashmiris have grievances with the Indian government, specifically the Indian Military, which has committed human rights violations, according to the United Nations. In mid-1999, insurgents and Pakistani soldiers from Pakistani Kashmir infiltrated into Jammu and Kashmir. During the winter season, Indian forces regularly move down to lower altitudes, as severe climatic conditions makes it almost impossible for them to guard the high peaks near the Line of Control. The insurgents took advantage of this and occupied vacant mountain peaks of the Kargil range overlooking the highway in Indian Kashmir that connect sarinagars and Leh. By blocking the highway, they wanted to cut off the only link between the Kashmir Valley . This resulted in a high-scale conflict between the Indian Army and the Pakistan Army. Fears of the Kargil War turning into a nuclear war provoked the then-United States President Bill Clinton to pressure Pakistan to retreat. Faced with mounting losses of personnel and posts, the Pakistan Army withdrew their remaining troops from the area, ending the conflict. India reclaimed control of the peaks, which they now patrol and monitor all year long. Pakistan's claims to the disputed region are based on the rejection of Indian claims to Kashmir, namely the Instrument of Accession. Pakistan insists that the Maharaja was not a popular leader, and was regarded as a tyrant by most Kashmiris. Pakistan maintains that the Maharaja used brute force to suppress the population. Pakistan accuses India of hypocrisy, as it refused to recognize the accession of Junagadh to Pakistan and Hyderabad's independence, on the grounds that those two states had Hindu majorities. Since he had fled Kashmir due to Pakistani invasion,Pakistan argues that even if the Maharaja had any authority in determining the plight of Kashmir, Pakistan claims that Indian forces were in Kashmir before the Instrument of Accession was signed with India, and that therefore Indian troops were in Kashmir in violation of the Standstill Agreement, which was designed to maintain the status quo in Kashmir From 1990 to 1999, some organizations reported that the Indian Armed Forces, its paramilitary groups, and counter-insurgent militias were responsible for the deaths 4,501 Kashmiri civilians.  Also from 1990 to 1999, there were records of 4,242 women between the ages of 7–70 being raped.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

How Much Does It Cost to Have an Abortion

Figuring out what an abortion will cost depends on the method of abortion you choose in consultation with your health care provider. The true cost for you will vary by state and provider and some health insurance policies do cover abortions. How Much Does an Abortion Cost? The actual cost of an abortion is going to vary. There are some averages that can give you an idea of what to expect. First, however, you must understand the different types of abortions. Around 90 percent of abortions in the U.S. are done within the first trimester (the first 12 weeks of pregnancy). Many more options are available during this time period including medication abortions (using the abortion pill mifepristone or RU-486  within the first 9 weeks)  or in-clinic surgical procedures. Both can be done through clinics, private health care providers, or Planned Parenthood health centers. In general, you can expect to pay between $400 and $1200 for a self-pay, first-term abortion. According to the Alan Guttmacher Institute, the average cost of a non-hospital first-trimester abortion was $480 in 2011. They also noted that the average medication abortion cost $500 that same year. According to Planned Parenthood, a first-trimester abortion can cost up to $1500 for an in-clinic procedure, but it often costs far less than that. A medication abortion can cost  up to $800. Abortions performed within a hospital typically cost more. Beyond the 13th week, it can be extremely difficult to find a provider willing to perform a second-trimester abortion. The cost of a second-trimester abortion will be significantly higher as well. How to Pay for an Abortion When youre making the  difficult decision  of whether or not to have an abortion, the  cost is a factor. Its a reality that you do have to consider. The majority of women pay out-of-pocket, though some insurance policies do cover abortions as well. Check with your insurance company to see if they offer coverage for this procedure. Even if youre on Medicaid, this method may be available to you. While many states ban abortion coverage from Medicaid recipients, others may restrict it to when the mothers life is in danger as well as in cases of rape or incest. Its important that you discuss all of your options for payment with your health care provider. They should be briefed on the latest guidelines and help you navigate the costs. A number of clinics, including Planned Parenthood, also work on a sliding-fee scale. They will adjust the cost according to your income. Things to Keep In Mind Again, there are ways to reduce these costs, so do not let this information add to your stress. You also must remember that these are national averages and that even two clinics in the same state will have different rates.   The 2011 reports given by the Guttmacher Institute seem to be holding true as of 2017. However, we must also take into account recent state and federal government actions that may affect the costs. It is unknown where these matters will lead or what effects they will have on abortion services or costs.